has been given to present these instructions in the original form.
is not responsible for errors. Remember these are VINTAGE
VINTAGE CROCHET INSTRUCTIONS
Cotton or thread, wool or silk, with a crochet-needle, are the
materials required for working crochet. The needle, whether it be
steel or bone, must be smoothly polished. The long wooden and bone
crochet-needles are used for wool; for cotton and silk work short
steel needles screwed into a bone handle are best. The beauty of
the crochet-work depends upon the regularity of the stitches, as is
the case with every other style of needlework. The stitches must be
elastic, but if too loose they look as bad as if too tight. The
size of the needle and that of the cotton or wool must correspond;
work only with the point of the needle, and never move the stitch
up and down the needle. The cotton with which you work must be of
the very best quality; for borders, insertions, rosettes, imitation
of guipure, use Evans's crochet cotton; for couvrettes,
counterpanes, covers, &c., use knitting-cotton. All
crochet-work patterns are begun on a foundation
chain; there are three kinds of foundation chains--the plain
foundation, the double foundation, and the purl foundation
The plain foundation chain consists of chain stitches.
ILLUSTRATION 216.--Form a loop with the cotton or other material
with which you work, take it on the needle, and hold the cotton as
for knitting on the forefinger and other fingers of the left hand.
The crochet-needle is held in the right hand between the thumb and
forefinger, as you hold a pen in writing; hold the end of the
cotton of the loop between the thumb and forefinger of the left
hand, wind the cotton once round the needle by drawing the needle
underneath the cotton from left to right, catch the cotton with the
hook of the needle and draw it as a loop through the loop already
on the needle, which is cast off the needle by this means and forms
one chain stitch. The drawing the cotton through the loop is
repeated until the foundation chain has acquired sufficient
length. When enough chain stitches have been made, take the
foundation chain between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand,
so that these fingers are always close to and under the hook of the
needle. Each stitch must be loose enough to let the hook of the
needle pass easily through. All foundation chains are begun with a
ILLUSTRATION 217 (The Double Foundation
Chain).--Crochet 2 chain stitches, insert the needle downwards
into the left side of the 1st chain stitch, throw the cotton
forward, draw it out as a loop, wind the cotton again round the
needle and draw it through the two loops on the needle, * draw the
cotton as a loop through the left side of the last stitch (see
illustration), wind the cotton round the needle, and draw it
through both loops on the needle. Repeat from * till the foundation
chain is long enough.
ILLUSTRATION 218 (Purl Foundation Chain).--* Crochet 4
chain stitch, then 1 treble stitch--that is, wind the cotton round
the needle, insert the needle downwards into the left side of the
1st of the 4 chain stitches, wind the cotton round the needle, draw
it through the stitch, wind the cotton again round the needle, and
at the same time draw the cotton through the last loop and through
the stitch formed by winding the cotton round the needle. Wind the
cotton once more round the needle, and draw it through the 2
remaining loops on the needle. The 4 chain stitches form a kind of
scallop or purl. Repeat from *. The following crochet
stitches require foundation chains like Nos. 216 and 217; they are
all worked in separate rows excepting the two Nos. 222 and 234.
Make a loop at the beginning of every row, as has been described
(No. 216), and take it on the needle.
ILLUSTRATION 219 (Slip Stitch).--Draw the needle
through the back part of a foundation chain stitch, or in the
course of the work through the back part of a stitch of the
preceding row, wind the cotton round the needle, and draw it
through the stitch and loop on the needle. The illustration shows a
number of slip stitches, the last of which is left quite loose; the
arrow marks the place where the needle is to be inserted for the
ILLUSTRATION 220 (Double Stitch).--These are worked
nearly like the preceding ones. Draw the cotton as a loop through
the back part of a stitch, wind the cotton round the needle, and
draw it through the two loops on the needle.
ILLUSTRATION 221.--These double stitches are worked nearly like
the preceding ones; the 1st row is worked like that of No. 220; in
the following ones insert the needle into the two upper sides of a
stitch of the preceding row.
ILLUSTRATION 222 (The Ribbed Stitch).--This stitch is
worked backwards and forwards--that is, the right and wrong sides
are worked together, which forms the raised ribs. Insert the needle
always into the back part of every stitch. Work 1 chain stitch at
the end of every row, which is not worked, however, in the
ILLUSTRATION 223 (Slanting Stitch, double
stitch).--This stitch is worked like that described in No.
220; the cotton is not wound round the needle the first time in the
usual manner, but the needle is placed in the direction of the
arrow, above the cotton. Draw the cotton through as a loop; the
stitch is finished like the common double stitch.
ILLUSTRATION 224 (Cross Stitch).--This stitch is worked
like No. 223 on a foundation like No. 217, only insert the needle
through the two upper sides of a stitch.
Illustration 225 (Long Double).--For this stitch wind
the cotton round the needle, insert it into the back part of a
stitch, draw the cotton out as a loop, wind the cotton again round
the needle, and cast off together the two loops and the loop formed
by winding the cotton round the needle.
ILLUSTRATION 226 (Treble Stitch).--These stitches are
worked as has been described for the purl foundation chain, No.
218. The treble stitches are worked on a foundation chain or in the
stitches of the preceding row.
ILLUSTRATION 227 (Long Treble).--These are worked like
treble stitches, only the cotton is wound twice round the needle;
the double long treble (illustration 228) is
worked by winding the cotton three times round the needle. The
loops formed by winding the cotton round the needle are cast off
one by one with one of the loops on the needle. The two loops that
remain at the end are cast off together after winding the cotton
round the needle.
ILLUSTRATION 229-231 (Cross Treble).--Illustration 229
shows this stitch completed; illustrations 230 and 231 show them in
the course of the work. Wind the cotton twice round the needle as
for a long treble, insert the needle into the stitch in which the
first half of the cross treble is to be worked, wind the cotton
round the needle, draw the cotton through as a loop, wind the
cotton again round the needle and cast off together with the same
the loop on the needle and the loop formed by throwing the cotton
forward; you have now 3 loops left on the needle, 1 of which has
been formed by winding the cotton round the needle; missing these,
wind the cotton again round the needle, miss the 2 next stitches of
the foundation chain, and draw a loop through the third stitch. You
have now 5 loops on the needle. Always cast off 2 loops at a time
till only 1 loop remains on the needle. Work 2 chain stitches (if
you wish to have the stitches more or less) slanting, work 1, 2, or
3 chain stitches, missing, of course, the same number of foundation
chain, work 1 treble stitch, inserting the needle, as shown by the
arrow on No. 231, into the 2 cross chain of the completed treble
ILLUSTRATION 232 (Raised Spots).--The grounding on
which these spots are worked consists of double crochet. They are
worked across 3 rows of the ground, and formed of treble stitches,
the spots of one row being placed between those of the preceding.
Work first 2 rows of double stitch, in the 3rd row work first 2
double stitches and then 1 spot as follows:--1 treble, inserting
the needle into both sides of 1 stitch of the first row (the
preceding row is missed); the treble stitch is only completed so
far that 2 loops remain on the needle; then work 2 treble
stitches in the same stitch as the first, which are also only
completed as far as the first treble stitch, so that after the 2nd
treble there remain 3 loops and after the 3rd 4 loops on the needle
(see illustration). The 4 loops are cast off together by winding
the cotton once more round the needle and drawing it through. Miss
under the spot the next double stitch of the preceding row; the
spots are repeated at intervals of 5 stitches and in every other
ILLUSTRATION 233 (Hollow Spots).--The ground is worked
in double crochet (illustration 220). These spots, which appear
raised, consist of 5 treble stitches; they are worked in every
other row at intervals of 5 stitches. For working them leave 1 loop
on the needle, insert the needle between the 2 long sides of the
last-worked double stitch, and work 5 treble stitches, always
inserting the needle into the front part of 1 stitch of the
preceding row. The first 4 treble are completed entirely without
taking up the loop which was on the needle; with the fifth treble
stitch only the 3 loops are cast off together by winding the cotton
round the needle. Miss 1 stitch of the preceding row under the
ILLUSTRATION 234 (Open-work Spots).--These spots are
treble stitches divided by 2 chain; miss 2 stitches under the
latter; for the rest, they are worked like the raised spots
ILLUSTRATION 235 (Raised Treble Stitch).--These
stitches are long treble worked on a ribbed ground (illustration
222), and are thrown across 3 rows of the same. The raised treble
are always worked on the same side of the work and in the
long side of the corresponding stitch of the last row but two.
After every row with treble stitch comes a row in ribbed stitch. At
the beginning work 3 rows of ribbed stitch; the treble stitches
begin only in the 4th row.
ILLUSTRATION 236 (Purl Stitch).--These purl stitches
imitate a lace edging perfectly well. Work 1 double, draw out the
loop to a certain length (this forms the purl), take the needle out
of it, insert it in the front part of the last stitch which has
been worked (see illustration), wind the cotton round the needle
and draw it through as a loop; 1 double, 1 purl, and so on.
ILLUSTRATION 237 (Purl Stitch turned upwards).--Work 1
treble, then 7 chain stitch. Insert the needle into the 2nd of the
7 chain stitch downwards, so that the chain stitches
form a scallop upwards (see illustration), wind the cotton round
the needle and draw the cotton through; work 1 chain stitch and 1
treble in the next stitch but 3, missing 3 stitches under it.
ILLUSTRATION 238 (Purl Stitch turned downwards).--The
chain stitches form a scallop turned downwards. After having worked
the 7 chain stitches take the needle out of the loop, insert it
underneath the upper chain of the 2nd chain stitch, from right to
left, and draw it through the loop in the direction of the arrow.
Wind the cotton round the needle and cast all the loops off
together. It is evident that the purl stitches may be worked at
larger or smaller distances.
The stitches used in crochet are, chain, slip, single, double,
treble, and long treble crochet.
TO MAKE A CHAIN, form a loop on the thread, insert the hook in it, and
draw the thread in another loop through this. Continue this to form a
succession of stitches.
SLIP-STITCH is made by drawing a thread at once through any given
stitch and the loop which is on the needle.
SINGLE CROCHET (written s.c.)—Having a loop on the needle, insert the
hook in a stitch, and draw the thread through in a loop. You then have
two on the hook; draw the thread through both at once.
DOUBLE CROCHET (d.c.)—Twist the thread round the hook before
inserting it in the stitch, through which you draw the thread in a
loop. Three loops being then on the needle, draw the thread through
two, and then through the one just formed and the remaining one.
TREBLE CROCHET (t.c.) and LONG TREBLE (long t.c.) are worked in the
same manner; in the former the thread is put twice, in the latter
three times, round the hook, before inserting it into the stitch.
TO JOIN LEAVES.—When one part of a leaf, flower, etc., is to be
joined to another, drop the loop from your hook, which insert in the
place to be joined; draw the loop through and continue working.
TO PASS FROM ONE ROUND TO ANOTHER WITHOUT BREAKING THE THREAD.—In
working mats and many similar articles this is very desirable. Having
finished one round, see whether a s.c., d.c., or t.c. stitch begins
the next; for s.c. make one chain, for d.c. three, for t.c. four; slip
the needle out, and twist the chain, then continue working. This
twisted chain will have all the appearance of a d.c. or t.c. stitch.
Should the round not begin exactly in the same place, slip-stitch to
the part where it commences, as it will seldom be more than a few
stitches in advance.
SQUARE CROCHET is a term often used, and generally understood, as the
engraved patterns are mostly in it. Lest, however, any of our readers
should not be familiar with the name, we will explain it. The squares
are either open or close. An open square consists of one d.c., two
ch.—missing two on the line beneath, before making the next stitch. A
close square has three successive d.c. Thus, any given number of close
squares, followed by an open, will have so many times three d.c., and
one over; and any foundation made for a pattern to be worked in
square crochet will have a number of chains divisible by three,
leaving one over.
TO CONTRACT AN EDGE.—In forming leaves and many other things, this is
very useful. It can be done in d.c., t.c., or long t.c. Having twisted
the thread round the needle as often as the stitch may require, insert
it in the work, and half-do a stitch. Instead of completing it, again
twist the thread round, until the same number of loops are on, and
work a stitch completely. Thus, for two stitches taken in the work,
there is only one head. This being successively repeated materially
contracts an edge.
TO JOIN ON A THREAD.—Avoid joins in open work as much as possible. In
close work, whether d.c. or s.c., they will not be perceived. Finish
the stitch by drawing the new thread through, allowing a couple of
inches for both ends, which you hold in.
TO WORK WITH SEVERAL COLOURS.—Hold the threads not in use along the
edge of the work, and work them in. When the colour is to be changed,
begin the stitch with the old colour, and complete it with the new,
which continue to work with, holding the other in. If only one stitch
of a colour is to be used, you finish one stitch, and begin the next
with it; then change. Colours are seldom intermixed, except in solid
work, such as the ends of purses, mats worked over cord, and the like.
TO WORK OVER CORD.—Hold it in the left hand, with the work, and work
round it, as you would if it were merely an end of thread. The
stitches must, however, be sufficiently close to cover it entirely.
TO WORK WITH BEADS.—Beads must be first threaded on the silk, or
other material, and then dropped, according to the pattern, on what is
usually thought the wrong side of the work. This side presents a more
even appearance than the other. It follows that when bead purses are
worked from an engraving, they are worked the reverse of the usual
way—namely, from right to left.
THE MARKS USED IN CROCHET RECEIPTS.—These are very simple when
understood. They are printers' marks—asterisks, crosses, daggers, and
sometimes one or two others. They are used to mark repetitions, and
save space. The principal thing to observe is, that in every row or
round, if one of any kind is used, a second, similar one, is sure
to be found; and that the repetition occurs between the two, however
far distant apart. Suppose a row of a pattern to be written thus:—X 2
d.c., 4 ch., miss 4, * 5 d.c., 1 ch., miss 1, * three times, 5 d.c.,
X, * twice; it would, at full length, be—2 d.c., 4 ch., miss 4, 5
d.c., 1 ch., miss 1, 5 d.c., 1 ch., miss 1, 5 d.c., 1 ch., miss 1, 5
d.c., 2 d.c., 4 ch., miss 4, 5 d.c., 1 ch., miss 1, 5 d.c., 1 ch.,
miss 1, 5 d.c., 1 ch., miss 1, 5 d.c. It will be seen that one
repetition often occurs within another, as in the stitches between
the asterisks. Another mode of shortening receipts can be used only
where a row has a centre both sides of which correspond; the latter
being the same as the former, worked backwards. Then the letters b,
a, are used, to mark that in the latter part of the row you reverse
the instructions. b, 7 d.c., 3 ch., miss 2, 1 d.c., 2 ch., miss 1,
a, 1 d.c. (the centre stitch), would be, 7 d.c., 3 ch., miss 2, 1
d.c., 2 ch., miss 1, 1 d.c., miss 1, 2 ch., 1 d.c., miss 2, 3 ch., 7
d.c. These letters and the printers' marks are equally used in
knitting. It is easy to see how much space is gained by the use of
these abbreviations, a knowledge of which is easily acquired. Probably
many of our friends are already familiar with the substance of this
preliminary lesson; but as daily experience convinces us that many are
still ignorant of the principles of crochet, we trust the good-nature
of the adepts will lead them to excuse this occupation of a page, in
consideration of the benefit it will be to their less fortunate
One word on the implement termed a crochet-hook. It should not be
sharp or pointed, either in the point or barb, but smooth, and quite
free from any angularity that can catch the silk. Cheap and common
crochet-hooks are in the end the dearest, as they break cotton, ravel
silk, wear out the patience, and prick the finger. They should be of
the best steel, highly polished, and firmly fixed in ivory handles.
Those we use have been made at our recommendation, and have the size
engraved on every handle. This saves the tiresome and uncertain
reference to a gauge. These hooks are termed "tapered, indented"
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